Monday, January 20, 2020

Why Humans Need God Essay -- Religion Belief Faith Society Essays

Why Humans Need God Why is there a God, deity, or higher consciousness in all cultures found around the world? Why won't the concept of God go away? Do humans need God? Is there even a God, by any religious standard? These are all interesting questions that spur a topic for me that may appall some Christians, but may make sense to a lot of other people. I started out a few years ago when I was evaluating my beliefs and asked myself "Why is there God?." I could not at that time believe without proof that there was a God, and I had no proof. I never got any real proof, just self realization upon self realization that there has to be a God, or at least the thoughts in my mind that corresponded with the thoughts of others in the past and in the present have been dubbed "God" to me. So I go on this journey of writing a paper questioning why in every culture from the first signs of ceremonial burials among Neanderthals to today's highly sophisticated rituals, rights and ceremonies of evolved religion, there seems to be something beyond us, higher than us, something we do not understand, but comforts us on dark, cold lonely nights when we are most vulnerable. In the book, Why God Wont Go Away, by Andrew Newberg, it seems that we are psychologically built to alleviate the existential fears and comfort us in this confusing and perilous world through invention and myths. From the earliest weapon to the latest technological revolution we are trying to make ourselves more secure in this world. That's one reason why it seems that in Christianities' earlier years it was either science or religion; you could not have both. Not only because they had conflicting goals and views, but also because when you had science, the human mind's ... ... Hayes, Brian J. "Friedrich Nietzsche God is Dead." Age-Of-The-Sage.org . 12 Nov 2003. Oct 2002. http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/philosophy/nietzsche_God_dead.html Martin, Joel W. Native American Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Mbitu, Ngangar, and Ranchor Prime. Essential African Mythology. San Francisco: Thorsons, 1997. Modern Spiritualities. Eds. Laurence Brown, Bernard C. Farr, R. Joseph Hoffmann. Amherst: Prometheus, 1997. Morris, Tom W. Philosophy for Dummies. New York: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc, 1999. Newberg, Andrew, Eugene D'Aquili, and Vince Rause. Why God Won't Go Away. New York: Ballantine Books, 2002. Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Gay Science: With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. Vintage Books, 1974.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

What techniques does Shakespeare use to reveal Iago’s villainy?

The play Othello is a stereotypical Shakespearean tragedy and it uses characters that are stereotypical of the views people had during the Jacobean period. Othello is a tragedy because the main characters die at the end f the play, also throughout the play themes of prejudice; deceit and love/hate are introduced. Shakespeare has used other sources other that his imagination for his plays. ‘Othello' was thought to have been taken from Hecatommithi, a collection of Italian short stories written by Giraldi Cinthio, the story seven contains many of the same names and situations as in Othello. In this essay I will analyze and comment on how Shakespeare uses techniques to reveal Iago's villainy. I will look at what effects the techniques Shakespeare uses have on the way Iago is presented to the audience. In act 2 scene 3 ‘Othello' we can clearly see the way Iago uses his surreptitious mind to persuade Othello that Desdemona is having an affair with Casio. Due to Iago's manipulation of Othello, Othello starts to doubt Desdemona's loyalty and becomes under Iago's control. Iago uses a sly way to get Othello's attention and get him to believe what he has to say is true, he uses phrases such as â€Å"my noble lord† using both a personal pronoun by saying â€Å"my† and flattery by calling Othello his â€Å"noble lord† which would be taken as a huge compliment. Othello interestedly says â€Å"what dost thou say, Iago?† Iago the produces a question â€Å"Did Michael Cassio, when you woo'd my lady know of your love?† which is, in this case, the first question to doubt Othello's mind. Othello replies with â€Å"he did, from first to last, why dost thou ask?† meaning Cassio did know about their love, Othello is a it confused by the question so asks Iago why he asked, Iago then sneakily continues with â€Å"but for satisfaction of my thought, no further harm† and this is to keep Othello interested but still in doubt of what's going on and what's the point of it all. Iago used techniques of withholding information, this gets Othello curious as to why Iago is so inquisitive, this makes Othello frustrated by Iago's confusing answers, he demands an answer, this makes the audience feel Othello is not as good character as he seemed and Iago is not as clever as he previously thought. Othello is very clever in the way that he tells Iago , â€Å"yes, and went between us very oft† here he tries to get information out of Iago about what's going on because Othello had been incidentally reminded but Iago that Cassio has easy and frequent access to Desdemona so therefore senses that Iago is lying, which causes Iago to repeat his words out of coyness â€Å"honest my lord†, Iago is then worried that he had gone too far and saves himself with a brief answer to Othello my lord, for aught I know†. However Othello can't be fooled that easily and still suspects something is going on and therefore assumed Iago is withholding information, so asks â€Å"what dost thou think?† Othello then falls deeper into his daze of doubt and tells Iago that he knows there is more to it that meets the eye, â€Å"nay there's more in this.† Iago then tells Othello he is known of being false and nasty but it is what he has seen and heard â€Å"why say they are vilet false†, and Iago says to Othello that he doesn't want to tell him, but needs to â€Å"it is my natures plague to spy into abuse† Iago tells Othello his story. Although Iago is careful not to say anything that could later be used against him, Othello becomes angry and annoyed, yet upset at what he thinks has happened, â€Å"†¦he echoes me, as if there were some monster in his thought too hideous to be shown† but then Iago cleverly ends the subject with â€Å"my lord, you know I love you† so that he can then bring it up later, and at the same time establishes Othello's trust in him. After a long conversation with each other, Iago becomes more persuasive towards Othello, he tries to get Othello to agree with him but also leaving a bit of doubt in what he says â€Å"†¦I think that he is honest†, which Othello automatically believes he is honest if Iago says so, because he trusts him so much and at the time, is believing everything Iago is saying. Also that words Iago uses is important in the persuasion, such as â€Å"men should be what they seem† and â€Å"†¦ I think Cassio's an honest man†, the significance of these words is important because Iago is leaving no evidence and is making sure he is not saying anything that other characters in the play, including Othello can use against him as evidence to prove he is a villain. This makes the readers feel slightly intimidated by the character Iago; he is cunning and devious and is very clever at carrying out his plans toward Othello. Shakespeare uses specific techniques to show that the manipulation of other characters by Iago. Iago makes the characters in the play believe he is honest when in fact he is deceiving them and is going behind their backs to turn others against them. For example, in act 3 scene 3 â€Å"my noble lord†. Iago is gaining Othello's trust by using personal pronouns and addressing him as if they were the best of friends. By gaining Othello's trust, Iago thinks Othello will listen to him more and is more likely to believe what he is saying. By having this advantage of being able to influence what Othello does and says, the other characters wouldn't know what Iago is doing; but with Othello being in charge, Iago technically has control over the other characters by being able to influence Othello's decisions. He later then says â€Å"o beware, my lord of jealousy† in this statement Iago is making Othello think about Cassio trying to get with Desdemona because he is jealous of Othello and Desdemona's relationship. One of Iago's techniques is to find the characters' weaknesses and use it against them. One example of this is when Iago discovers Cassio's weakness was alcohol; Cassio leaves Iago on his own, this gives him time to explain to the audience what he is planning to do. â€Å"If I can fasten but one cup on him†¦ He'll be full of quarrel and offence† Then convinced him to have a few more drinks, he got drunk and started fighting. Iago did this because he wanted to get moved up ranking and wanted Cassio's position so was trying to get him fired. Typical views of Italian men in the renaissance period involve scheming, and devious behavior. Shakespeare created Iago based on the personality traits of a typical Italian stereotype, Machiavelli. Machiavelli did anything it took to get to the top, much like Iago, who was willing to kill people so he could get a higher position, he was also deceitful and devious like Machiavelli because of his two faced treachery. Iago manages to persuade characters in the play to do things that will benefit him, things that they would not normally do, one of the main victims of this particular type of manipulation is Othello, and Iago manages to [persuade Othello to kill Desdemona, the love of his life! He does this by using persuasive techniques such as reverse intention, this occurs throughout the play, when Othello and Iago are talking about Cassio's dream Othello shouts â€Å"monstrous† but Iago then says â€Å"nay† trying to imply it was only a dream, therefore minimizing the significance, at least, this is what Iago would theoretically be trying to do, however in this case he is actually trying to make Othello suspect more than a dream. At this point the audience know Iago is the villain because of the recent goings on in the play relating to trying get Cassio drunk, and his monologues so realize what he is trying to do. Another instance of reverse intention is when Iago states â€Å"let her live† he puts the idea of killing Desdemona in Othello's mind despite never mentioning it in the first place. Iago purposely uses long sentences so Othello only notices the points he wants him to notice, subtly disguising the hints he imploys to imply Desdemona's guilt, â€Å"I do beseech though I perchance and vicious in my guess ( as I confess it is my natures plague they spy into my abuses and of my jealousy shape faults that are not)-that your wisdom from one that is so imperfectly conceits would not notice, nor build yourself a trouble out of his scattering and unsure observance†, Although the character Iago is saying he is vicious in his guess, and then tries to accuse Othello of mistakenly imagining things, he is basically trying to avoid having to say something unpleasant, trying to direct Othello away from the point that was made. The commentary then gets Othello confused, he asks, â€Å"What dost thou mean?† Iago then has tie plain it, quite distressing Othello, it makes Othello think Iago is accusing him of a life of jealousy which he gets quite offended by. In the play, Shakespeare purposely structures it Iago's villainy it revealed at the end, if this were not the case, and the characters realized Iago's villainy at the beginning or earlier on in the play, there would be no storyline, the play is only based around two days, here would be no themes of deceit, death, heartbreak and villainy, so structuring the play in this way was the best way of presenting the tragedy. Also, because the play was only based on two days, this would not gave given Desdemona any time to be unfaithful to Othello, therefore undermining the belief for Othello's guilt. Iago is clever by covering his deception by never saying anything that he would think Othello would take offence to or not believe, he only says things he knows Othello is thinking anyway so he doesn't get himself into trouble, he never even suggests anything he just presents them as mere ideas so people have nothing to blame on him later on it the play † to grosses issues, nor larger reach than to suspicion† Iago is urging Othello to take a different course of action in certainty he is only planting the idea in his mind. Racism and prejudice would be a difficult theme to portray if Iago's villainy was revealed at the beginning, Othello would never befriend a known villain because he is hated enough for his race, he feels alien to Desdemona and his other characters n the play, â€Å"his own clime, complexion and degree†, this makes Othello feel alienated, â€Å"set on thy wife†, Othello has moved from feeling fine to feeling low, he sunk very quickly after Iago mentioned he is different to Desdemona, he took things to heart easily and took offence very easily. Until the end, Othello has no suspicion towards Iago's villainy, this is strange as Iago is trying to turn Othello against his beloved wife, he tries to imply this has cheated on him, he is jealous and he is imagining things, all false accusations, yet Othello notices nothing, because of the repeated use of the word honest when talking about Iago.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

William Blake And John Keats - 952 Words

William Blake and John Keats are consider one of the most influential and well-known poets of the 1800 Romantic Era. Some scholars refer to Blake as a seminal figure of the Romantic Age; while Keats is referred to a one of the main second generation figures in the Romantic Era. Blake and Keats have both written a plethora of poems in which some share some of the same characteristics and differ in others. Although Blake wasn t well recognized in his time, he was able to write, â€Å"The Chimney Sweeper† and â€Å"The Rose†. As for Keats he was able to write, â€Å"La Belle Dame Sans Merci† and â€Å"When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be†. All of these poems share the idea of death and love. Although Black and Keats are both from the Romantic Era they sometimes contradicted each other. Above all, both poets use a combination of death and love. Blake use of death in â€Å"The Chimney Sweeper† and â€Å"The Chimney Sweeper† makes his work stri ke the reader with intense emotion. By using death and love Blake and Keats get their points across to cause an emotional respond from the reader. Although Blake and Keats poems both revolve around the idea of death and love, they sometimes portray death differently. Throughout Keats poem, â€Å"La Belle Dame Sans Merci† a knight recalls his recent encounter with a â€Å"faery’s child† who tricks the knight into going to her cave. The beautiful woman then sings a song to make him sleep. The beautiful woman is considered a femme fatale, because she brings death to anShow MoreRelatedThe Romantic Works Of John Keats, Percy Shelley, And William Blake1456 Words   |  6 Pagespersistent through romantic poetry creates a bond between the poet and the common man through short poems that express personal emotion that all can feel, as we all are connected to nature. This can be seen through the works of John Keats, Percy Shelley, and William Blake. Percy Shelley was a joyful and optimistic Romantic poet of the time who was concerned with the beauty and passions of nature, creativity, and imagination. Nature is an ever present theme in his poetry as he feels closely connectedRead MoreRomanticism : Romanticism And Romanticism1444 Words   |  6 Pagessuch as John Keats, Blake William, Wordsworth William and other. They came with the different illustrated, poetry that expresses the language, emotion and imagination. Romanticism is a phenomenon characterized by subjectivity of approach and reliance on the imagination, An Idealization of nature and freedom of though and expression. In 1830 some of poets define romanticism as â€Å"liberalism in literature but the end of 18th century it was made cracks to classicism by poet called William Blake. BlakeRead MoreWilliam Blake And Transcendentalism Analysis884 Words   |  4 PagesWe can see transcendentalism with William Blake and his poetry. William Blake, who is a pre-romantic poet, handles his themes sincerely with a mind that is not distracted by the existing opinions such as rationalism, suppression and reason of opinions in his society. Although, he favors the morals of love, freedom, brotherhood and equality. Therefore, I believe he is considered one of the best romantic poets of all time. The majority of Blake’s poems show the romantic side of things such as simplicityRead MoreRomanticism Movement ( 1750-1870 )1223 Words   |  5 PagesRomanticism movement brings some of different writes such as John Keats, Blake William, Wordsworth William and other. Romanticism is a phenomenon characterized by subjectivity of approach and reliance on the imagination, An Idealization of nature and freedom of though and expression. In 1830 some of poets define romanticism as â€Å"liberalism in literature but the end of 18th century it was made cracks to classicism by poet called William Blake. Blake was inspired to write about the ancient thing as likeRead MoreJavier Santana. English 206. May 14, 2017. Death In Romantic1657 Words   |  7 Pagesviewed death, they expressed their vision of it through their feelings and emotions in their work, whether it is seen as an inevitable end to our lives as in John Keats’ â€Å"When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be† or as a new beginning as in William Blake’s â€Å"The Chimney Sweeper† many different poets portray death in very different ways. In John Keats’ â€Å"When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be†, he brings up death to speak of his own life. In that poem he is literally struggling with his own mortality andRead MoreThe Romantic Period : The Dark Alleyways Of The Modern Bourgeoisie1297 Words   |  6 Pagesimagination, the Romantic Movement argued against the artificiality and industrialization that that bourgeois dreamed of. However, this bourgeois dream seems more like a nightmare for poet laureates such as William Wordsworth and William Blake, as well as other Romantic poets like John Keats, who stress the importance of nature and its landscapes over the rapid expansion of an industrialized society. More specifically, writers of this period believe that spiritual and emotional healing is a resultRead MoreRomanticism : Romanticism And Romanticism1141 Words   |  5 PagesThese poets are William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, and William Blake. William Wordsworth was a poet who wrote during the Romantic period. He is often described as a nature writer. He always paid close attention to his environment, such as weather, plants, and animals. John Keats was an English lyric poet during the Romantic period who used vivid imagery in his poems. In 1816, he met the editor of The Examiner, Leigh Hunt. They later became great friends. Keats published hisRead MoreThe Life Of Dorothy Wordsworth And John Keats946 Words   |  4 Pagessurfaced: William Blake, William Wordsworth, Percy Shelley, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Byron, and John Keats. Included in this list should be Dorothy Wordsworth and Mary Wollstonecraft. The eighteenth century produce material that shattered the fundamental’s of society. On Christmas day in 1771, Dorothy Wordsworth was born. When her mother passed away seven years later, young Dorothy was shuffled from one relative to another. Even though her brothers received an education and she didn’t, William willinglyRead MoreRomanticism: Blake and Keats1146 Words   |  5 PagesRomanticism: Blake and Keats Blake and Keats were renowned poet during the period where Romanticism played an essential part in creative art and works. Romanticism is an international artistic and philosophical movement that redefined the fundamental ways in which people in Western cultures thought about themselves and about their world. Poets like Blake and Keats writings were influenced by the fundamentals of nature, human emotions, feelings, imagination, instinct and intuition, reflectionRead MoreA Comparison of Blake, Wordsworth and Keats2554 Words   |  11 PagesA Comparison of Blake, Wordsworth and Keats William Blake, John Keats and William Wordsworth all believe in the depth of the world and the possibilities of the human heart. However, each poet looks towards different periods in time to capture meaning in life. Blake looks towards the future for his inspiration, Keats towards the present and Wordsworth towards the past. Regardless of where each poet looks for their inspiration they are all looking for the same thing; timeless innocence. Each poet

Friday, December 27, 2019

Case Study on Processes in Pre-school Children Essay

Description of Child In order to be a school age child or in middle childhood you first have to go through the preschool years. Jose was born in Salinas, CA in February 2009. He lives with his mother and dad and has two sisters. His mother doesn’t work right now so, he is most of the time with his mother while his dad works full time and only sees him before going to sleep. Both of his parents are Mexican descent and are a working class. For his age, he is the average size and has short hair and dark brown eyes. Physical Development of Child To begin with, Jose weighted about 40 pounds (18kg) and was 3 feet and 7 inches (43 inches) tall when I examined him (Parent Interview, May 10, 2014). Based on the growth curve tables given†¦show more content†¦By doing all this things the parents will reduce the risk for their children to develop future obesity and instead maintain them in a healthy weight based on Steinberg, Vandell, and Bornstein (2011).Second, he sleeps about 10 hours every day (Parent Interview, May 10, 2014) and according to Steinberg, Vandell, and Bornstein children from ages four to six years need ten to eleven hours of sleep because this is essential to physical development since, the growth hormone is being released (2011).Lastly, some milestones in fine and gross motor skills that he has attained at his age are that he can now dress up by himself and he doesn’t need any help. Also, he can tie his shoes without help and all of this are some fine motor skills (Pa rent Interview, May 10, 2014).Too, some gross motor skills that Jose has conquered are that when he was three years he started to ride the tricycle that his dad bought him for his birthday and as well, his mom saw him being able to stand on one foot (Parent Interview, May 10, 2014).To add up, based on the table on normative standards for motor development that Steinberg, Vandell, and Bornstein provided children age five can dress up by themselves and tie their shoes without any help. Too, when they are three they ride the tricycle and can stand on one foot (2011). Cognitive/Intellectual Development of Child Jose is five years and he has entered the preoperational stage where his use of symbolic thinking or representationShow MoreRelatedThe Cycles Approach For Children With Severe Speech Sound Disorders1654 Words   |  7 PagesThe purpose of this evidence based research paper is to evaluate the efficacy of the cycles approach when compared to the traditional articulation therapy approach in the treatment of children who are highly unintelligible. The Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach (Hodson, 2011) is a treatment method for children with severe speech sound disorders. This approach targets phonological pattern errors in a sequential manner. During each cycle, one or more phonological patterns are targeted and afterRead More Impact Of Prematurity On Development Essay example1380 Words   |  6 Pagesit is not very severe in most cases, and is easily treated. In more severe cases, it can be associated with cerebral palsy or mental reta rdation. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Premature infants generally show a lower IQ than full term babies, but only by about 10 points. This still puts them in the same IQ range as their full term peers. They are more likely to need special education classes later in life, though, and more likely to have to repeat a grade in school. This is most likely because someRead MoreJean Piaget s Theory Of Psychology956 Words   |  4 Pages(e.g., 1966, 1974) and Ulrick Neisser (1967) form the basis of the constructivist theory of learning and instruction. While working in Binet s IQ test lab in Paris, Piaget became interested in how children think. He noticed that young children s answers were qualitatively different than older children which suggested to him that the younger ones were not dumber (a quantitative position since as they got older and had more experiences they would get smarter) but, instead, answered the questions differentlyRead MoreLearning A Second Language At A Young Age1243 Words   |  5 PagesWith the seemingly increased importance in learning a second language, schools nationwide have implemented learning a foreign language as a requirement, for graduation in High School. However, starting to learn a second language at a young age is the most effective and beneficial practice in leading a child on the path to fluently speaking another language. This practice is more effective and beneficial on the grounds that children learn faster and more easily during their first years of life, it producesRead MoreBorrowed T heory Application1292 Words   |  6 Pagesepistemologist, was interested in how organisms adapt to the environment. He studied the cognitive development of children and believed it involves continuous organization of mental processes. Piaget uses two major aspects in his theory: the process of coming to know and the stages we move through as we acquire this ability (Huitt Hammel, 2003). Piaget believed that through the processes of assimilation and accommodation, a balance is created and this influences an individual to adapt to its changingRead MoreTaking Advantage of One’s Early Years: Learning a Second Language1337 Words   |  6 PagesWith the seemingly increased importance in learning a second language, schools nationwide have implemented learning a foreign language as a requirement, for graduation in High School. However, starting to learn a second language in kindergarten is the most effective and beneficial practice in leading a child on the path to fluently spea king another language. This practice is more effective and beneficial on the grounds that children learn faster and more easily during their first years of life, it producesRead MoreCurrent State Of Instruction For Students868 Words   |  4 Pagesthe demographics of the community, school, and classroom, the methodology of the case study, and limitations. We will then analyze findings based on interviews, student work, and observations then conclude with recommendations that will support ELLs through the process of acquiring English. Finally, a reflection on the case study will be included that addresses the experience of the observer and impacts for future practice. The student selected for this case study comes from a Spanish speaking homeRead MoreThe Impact Of Gernal Employment And Body Mass Index Of Children700 Words   |  3 Pageswere more prevalent in obese children like bone and joint pro The role of child age might also be particularly important in association between maternal employment and body mass index of children (Morrissey et al 2011).Miller and Han (2008) claimed that, mothers with irregular working shifts had disruption in meal preparation and activity routines. The study also reported that child’s BMI increased significantly if their mothers worked at irregular schedule. Thus, children of employed mothers were moreRead MoreJean Piaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development1553 Words   |  7 Pagesstill used today in many schools and homes. People from various cultures use his theory when it comes to child development. Although there are criticisms and alternatives to his theory, it is still largely used today around the world. Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland on August 1896. Some of Piaget’s influences that contribute to his later works includes his father. â€Å"His father, a medieval literature professor named Arthur, modeled a passionate dedication to his studies† (Jean Piaget, 2016)Read MoreIntegrating Technology Within The Classroom928 Words   |  4 Pagestypes of technology in educational environments. Through the incorporation of educational technology models and theories, the practitioner’s focus is specifically on how technology can be used to improve student performance through processes, procedures, and tools. Processes and procedures may comprise any task or intervention involving anything from a simple instructional strategy to a complex instructional system. (Wade et al., 2013). However, successful integration of technology will only occur when

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Globalization and Free Trade - 1650 Words

In the actual free trade context in the globalized nation, it is referring to a freedom for businesses to trade between countries at no barrier from government intervention which includes imposing tax on the products and services, subsidies, import and export quota limitation, as well as imposing trade legislation. However, this cannot be realized in today’s world (White, 2008) due to the fact that each country needs to protect and balance between the three major aspects which is the social, economy and politic domestically in order to compete in the competitive world and at the same time contribute to peace of the world. This is especially true for the developing countries such as Malaysia, China, India and et cetera as compared to the†¦show more content†¦The finished goods will then be imported back to the country and the domestic consumer will have to fork out more money to afford the product where the initial raw material came from them. This directly affected t he increase in cost of living at the developing country to purchase the imported goods at a higher price due to the fact that the research and development, technology and knowledge were not as good as the developed countries. A significant example would be the Malaysia rubber being the highest quality rubber in the world. One of the most famous brands in condom industry named DUREX is made from high quality rubber from Malaysia (Sheridan, 2006). After manufacturing the condom in Thailand which offers cheaper labors, they will market the product throughout the nation which includes Malaysia. Since Malaysia does not have the expertise in manufacture condom given the high quality local rubber, the local consumer has to purchase the imported condoms which is of higher price. As the demand increases for the raw material, it was exported out from the developing countries and this will eventually lead to scarcity of resource as raw material is finite. When the supply of raw material can no longer satisfy the need of demand, the large corporation will look for other substitution material in other countries. Therefore, the developing country that relies on the income from the sale of rawShow MoreRelatedGlobalization and Free Trade 1086 Words   |  5 Pageslonger relevant for economic purposes. In today’s world, when conditions are right, it is just as easy to do business with someone across the globe as it is with someone across your street. Globalization has opened the doors to economic freedom, and economic freedom became the trigger for international free trade and overall economic expansion. It allows for personal choices and prosperity. On a day to day basis, consumers are no longer limited to local products, they have the choice to choose fromR ead MoreThe Benefits of Free Trade and Globalization527 Words   |  2 PagesEach year, globalization plays a more profound role in regards to the national economies of the world. Globalization has allowed for the expansion of corporations beyond their natural domestic limits. As such it has contributed to an increased standard of living for those who embrace its presence. Free trade therefore, is a welcomed addition within the overarching trend of globalization. Free trade allows for the transfer of goods and services when demanded by specific economies. It also allows theRead MoreFree Trade, Globalization, And The World2404 Words   |  10 PagesWhen we turn the television on we hear that free trade is tied to democracy. We are told by the media and politicians that free trade helps us by creating cheap goods, better jobs, and constructive relationships with other countries. This is the American view of free trade. We are told that it is a naturally beneficial thing, that it fur thers democracy, and that it helps those poor unfortunates in the third world get jobs. We are told that it will make us rich, that it will return us to a prosperityRead MoreGlobalization: A Free Trade Phenomenon Essay866 Words   |  4 Pages Globalization is â€Å"the integration of states through increasing contact, communication and trade to create a holistic, single global system in which the process of change increasingly binds people together in a common fate† (Carey 2002). Some economists recognize globalization as being in the best interest of all states. While others believe that increasingly liberated trade and global economic interaction is necessary in many ways. While globalization marks a move toward a more open world-tradingRead MoreGlobalization Process, Free International Trade1789 Words   |  8 PagesConsidering as one of prominent aspects of the globalization process, free international trade has over 100 years in the development history (Lawal 2006; O campo Martin 2003). At the first stage, free trade was happened within the North and South America countries, then together with the development of the world economy, trade liberalization has expanded to almost areas of the world (Ocampo Martin 2003). The most expansive and extensive period of trade liberalization is from the second half of theRead MoreGlobalization Advanced Free Trade, Open Markets, And Competition1469 Words   |  6 PagesGlobalization advanced free trade, open markets, and competition in the world economy. Regrettably, this worldwide amalgamation and growth contributed to the equalities and inequalities between third world nation-states. The growing populace placed an extra demand on the third world nation-states for food, shelter, and clothing. Consequently, Africa, South Asia, and Latin America grew anxious since their populaces are predisposed to diseases, famine, and premature death. In chapter one of PromisesRead MoreGlobalization Advanced Free Trade, O pen Markets, And Competition1568 Words   |  7 Pages Globalization advanced free trade, open markets, and competition in the world economy. Regrettably, this worldwide amalgamation and growth contributed to the equalities and inequalities between third world nation-states. The growing populace placed an extra demand on the third world nation-states for food, shelter, and clothing. Consequently, Africa, South Asia, and Latin America grew anxious since their populaces are predisposed to diseases, famine, and premature death. In chapter oneRead MoreBenefits And Long Term Repercussions Of Free Trade And Economic Globalization1790 Words   |  8 Pageslong-term repercussions of free trade and economic globalization has moved to the foreground of public policy concerns around the world. These key issues that influence the free trade and globalization argument is whether trade liberalization truly affects the quality of the environment. This is either in terms of direct effect s on the environment, or indirectly, for example, the effects of trade such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) have onRead MoreGlobalization Has Changed The Economic Condition Of A Country Or The Lives Of People995 Words   |  4 PagesGlobalization is a communication and connection between person-to-person, local-to-local and nation-to-nation to preserve and develop trade, technology, education, and etc. There are a couple aspects of globalization to count on, but this essay will be focusing on one specific dimension of globalization. Mostly, this essay will examine economic aspect of globalization as well as it will conduct a research: how globalization has changed the economic condition of a country or the lives of people. MoreoverRead MoreGlobalization : A Way Short Introduction928 Words   |  4 PagesThe Book Globalization: A way short Introduction by Manfred B. Steger was a great book. Out of all the books I have to rea d for classes and etc. this one was one of the best reads. I learned so many things that I never have thought about in globalization. Generally people just know it as spreading one’s ideals into the world. But after reading this book I was able to really learn about the effects and consequences of the globalization. I also learned that globalization really affects everyone around

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Public Relations and Communication Business Management

Question: Discuss about the Public Relations and Communication Business Management. Answer: Introduction Effective communication is of an utmost importance to most of the aspects of human life such as in educational institution, workplace and public gathering places. The importance of communication can only be measured with its consequence on the respective society or place. However, effective communication can be termed as a fact, which is necessary to address to the dialogic exchanges in between the listener or the speaker. The development of effective communication in a person is influenced by its every changing stage in life such as in school or degree colleges and at workplace (Guffey and Loewy 2012). The main purpose of this assignment is to understand the effectiveness of a communication of irrespective types and the some useful tips to measure it. Incident related to poor communication One of the most weird example of poor communication have had happened in my organization where I am working as an IT expert. The incident took place when one of the supervisors did complain about some of the faulty behaviour of the computer system. The complaint was responded efficiently from the team of IT experts. However, the problem required the inclusion of added RAM in the system, which indeed needs to be addressed to the higher management to avail the required financial support. The IT expert did ask the supervisors to send a mail to the IT department citing the whole incident. In spite of informing to the IT department through mailing, the supervisors did forget to address the issue by sending the mail to the IT department (Grunig 2013). The poor communication in between the supervisors and the IT department did result in no work done related to the system. This indeed became responsible for the persistence of the problem even further. It certainly wasted some significant time as well as it also hampered the project as it was close to the assigned deadlines. Drafting a mail is the most acceptable mode of establishing a formal communication within the organization. It could have been sorted out quite efficiently if there were no such negligence from the supervisors part. The best way to ignore such communication gap is the prioritising of the tasks based on their importance. The highlighted problem should have been prioritised as the project was nearing its set deadline (Kaul 2014). Dialogic communication is perhaps the best mode to facilitate strategy making in organizations. The dialogic communication at the workplace in the recent past has taken a significant change in recent time. In the past, the importance of dialogic communication was not known. This has resulted in certain communication related failure, which also influenced the business operation. Some of the communication related gap was found when mail was not sent to the IT department, which eventually hampered the project. However, in recent time, there has been a strict instruction from the management to maintain a healthy mailing practice. The supervisors and al the high positioned staffs of the Company are engaged in a good mailing practice. They have understood the importance of professional mode of communication (Cornelissen 2014). Dialogic Communication is very important in business terms. This is because of the fact that it helps in making the strategies, proposing actions and implementing the discussed actions. Dialogic communication involves the participation of all the attendees for receiving some valuable feedbacks and suggestions. It is an undeniable fact that strategy making involves the understanding of every domains of working at the workplace. For example, to impose some working guidelines into an organization, it is important to have discussions with the HRM for discussing over the proposed changes. This provides ample of moment to the HRM to understand exactly the matter of discussion. This indeed is helpful when they would contact and have discussions with the employees over the proposed changes. Dialogic form of communication is perhaps the most productive form of communication that is in practice. This is because of the fact that it encourages knowledge sharing in between the speakers and the li steners. This also effectively facilitates the smooth progress of the meeting as the interest level of participants is aroused by their sheer concentration and understanding of the transformed information (Chen, Chiang and Storey 2012). Ideal Business Communication Skills Business communication skills can be developed in numerous ways as understood from the above discussions on the dialogic form of communication. The insights that can be derived from the above discussion are as follows that are extremely helpful in developing and improving the business communication: The listening skills are perhaps one of the most effective factors for improving the business communication. This is because of the fact that it helps in catching and transforming the grabbed information to a more developed form of business operation. Attentiveness, which is another part of active listening, is something that facilitates the transformation of information from the higher management to tie employees. It is often observed that employees those are less attentive tends to lose their grip on the matter of discussion. Attentiveness helps in collecting, transforming and understanding the grabbed information (Martin and Nakayama 2013). Collaborative approach during the discussion Dictatorship would certainly hamper the interest level of participants. This is because of the fact that they tend to perceive this as some kinds of lectures. This is because of a psychological problem of human being, which generally encourages them for not liking any kinds of lectures. This is indeed important for the speaker to understand the mentality of the participants and act accordingly. However, this is indeed difficult to analyse the mentalities of all the participants. This is not feasible with respect to the time allotment. The best way to go for a talkative session is to stick with the dialogic form of communication, which invites every participant for addressing the issue with some useful suggestions and feedbacks. Collaborative approach does also bring harmonization of work spirit within the organization. This happens because of the fact that it forms a bonding in between al the participators of the discussions (Petty and Cacioppo 2012). Sensitive issues should be addressed to the higher management for avoiding any communication gap at the workplace. Sensitive issues can be of any type such as urgent repairing of tools and devices that are important for the operation. The damages that are done to the tools and the devices needs to be addressed to the higher management through the medium of professional communication modes. Drafting a mail to the respective department would be the best professional mode to address the issue. This is one of the vital parts of an organization that needs to be addressed quickly in order to prevent the organization from any such potential damages. Quick responses are important to have competitive edge in the market as this brings effective and quick responses against the changing face and demand of the market (Castells 2013). Enhancing the learning memory Enhancement of memorising power is of utmost importance to the development of interpersonal communication skills. Efforts should be given to memorise important events at the workplace. This is helpful in avoiding the communication related gaps to some extent. For example, if someone is asked to address the issue to the higher management through mail, it becomes necessary for the particular to memorise the instructions. Moreover, if it does not do so, it would fall short of making any commitment fulfilled (Cornelissen 2014). The different forms of insights that are mentioned above are indicative in their nature as they facilitate knowledge sharing in between the person and the insights methods. All the above-mentioned factors are extremely helpful in educating an individual on the business communication perspectives. This is because of the fact that these communication development techniques infuse sufficient amount of knowledge into its bearer. Moreover, the educative transformation of knowledge on the communication is helpful in judging the personal position in terms of interpersonal business communication (Grunig 2013). Conclusion Communication is very important for everyone in this world; however, it grows in its importance when it reaches to the organizational level. The area of working of an organization is very high, which makes this a challenge for all the associate people to have a smooth interpersonal communication. There is no place to any communication related failure in an organization. The failure can only be entertained if it has not hampered any business operations; however, the incurred losses would leave any place of consolidation to the communication related failure. References Castells, M., 2013.Communication power. OUP Oxford. Chen, H., Chiang, R.H. and Storey, V.C., 2012. Business intelligence and analytics: From big data to big impact.MIS quarterly,36(4), pp.1165-1188. Cornelissen, J., 2014.Corporate communication: A guide to theory and practice. Sage. Grunig, J.E., 2013.Excellence in public relations and communication management. Routledge. Guffey, M.E. and Loewy, D., 2012.Essentials of business communication. Cengage Learning. Kaul, A., 2014.Effective business communication. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.. Martin, J.N. and Nakayama, T.K., 2013.Experiencing intercultural communication. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Petty, R. and Cacioppo, J., 2012.Communication and persuasion: Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. Springer Science Business Media.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Global Political Economy

There are three main theories and worldviews involved in analyzing the global political economy. The first of these worldviews is liberalism. Under liberalism, individual corporations are regarded as the basic units of analysis. Moreover, the market is superior to the state, and the government plays a minimal role in the economy. The theory was developed by Adam Smith and David Ricardo, economists by their own rights.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Global Political Economy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Later, it was modified by Raymond Vernon and turned into the Sovereignty-at-Bay theory. The second theory is economic nationalism. It is the worldview that takes the state as its basic unit of analysis. In this theory, the state is superior to the market. In addition, the government, through its various agencies, plays a significant role in the economy. The government regulates prices, production and such o ther issues related to the economy. The theory was originally developed by Hamilton and List. It was later modified by Kindleberger. The third form of worldview is structuralism theory. In this theory, class is taken as the basic unit of analysis. Under structuralism, the dominant class in the society wields significant control over the market and the state. For example, the dominant class controls the means of production, as well as the government. The current paper is written against this background. In the paper, the author examines how the International Monetary Fund (herein referred to as the IMF) has used liberalism to control developing nations in Latin America and Asia. The International Monetary Fund has a long history in the global economy. The organization was created on December 27th, 1945. The initial membership of the organization was 45 nations. The brains behind the creation of the organization were motivated by several objectives. One of the major objectives of the IMF was to stabilize exchange rates in the global market. The organization was also aimed at regulating and stabilizing the international payment system after the Second World War. Member countries contribute money to the organization. Nations facing various financial challenges borrow from these funds and repay their loans with interest. Another role of the IMF is to provide guidance to member states on how to grow their economies and formulate sound economic policies. As of today, the organization has 188 members drawn from all continents in the world.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many countries, especially those with transitional and developing economies, have encountered various challenges emanating from budget deficits. An example of how the IMF relates with its member nations is illustrated by the agreement that the organization made with Brazil in late 1990s. Aroun d this time, the country was going through a crisis related to its Balance of Payments (herein referred to as BOP). The organization and the government agreed that after receiving financial assistance, the Central Bank will make sure that interest rates in the country remain high. The demand was just one of the conditions put in place by the IMF. According to the IMF, the conditions were put in place for two main reasons. The first justification given by the organization for the conditions was to keep investors in the country. The organization felt that the new policies will not only lock the existing local investors in the country, but will also attract foreign investor. The second reason used to justify the conditions was to reduce the rate of economic growth in the country. However, just like many other developing nations, Brazil found faced various challenges in efforts to implement the new policies prescribed by the organization. For example, the government found it politically difficult to adopt some of the measures. If implemented, the government felt that the policies will make the regime unpopular in the country. High interest rates may also lead to civil unrest in the country. At the end of the day, the Brazilian government was unable to address the budget deficit. The relationship between the IMF and the Brazilian government can be analyzed from the perspective of the liberalism theory. According to this theory, the IMF, as an organization, can have primacy over the state. The superiority of the organization to local governments is expressed through the various conditions given by IMF, conditions that member states have to stick to for them to retain their membership in the organization. The conditions put in place by IMF and other similar organizations are normally referred to as structural adjustment programs (herein referred to as SAPs). The conditions, which are set by other bodies, such as the World Bank Group (herein referred to as WBG) and th e World Trade Organization (herein referred to as WTO) are associated with radical trade liberalization.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Global Political Economy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such liberalizations are not supported by most developing nations in the world. The main reason for this lack of support is the fact that the developing nations feel that the liberalization policies are structured to benefit the developed nations at their expense. However, given the amount of money such countries owe the IMF, they do not have any option other than to comply with the demands of these organizations. Analysts and economic scholars refer to this situation as arm-twisting on the part of the organizations. Such arm-twisting measures, which are meant to put pressure on developing countries, were evident during the Uruguay Round negotiations. During the negotiations, most third world economies expressed thei r lack of support for the process. The lack of support was evident in their passive participation in the process, as well as lack of representation. However, the developing nations were dragged into endorsing the 1994 Marrakesh Accord, which established the WTO. The accord also sealed the negotiations made during the Uruguay Round. Only a minority of developing countries, most of them belonging to the Cairns Group, were in support of WTO. Their support was pegged on hopes of WTO widening the market for their agricultural products. The forceful liberalization of markets, which is championed by the IMF, has not benefited the developing economies as expected. For instance, before 1997, most nations in East Asia had fairly successful economies. For a period of about thirty years, ending in 1997, the economies of these nations recorded positive growth. The countries had recorded impressive results in the health, education, and economic sectors. In addition, they had very low levels of po verty. However, in the early 1990s, the markets were liberalized due to international pressure from IMF and the United States of America. Consequently, such countries as Thailand received short-term capital assistance, which could not be used for long term investments. For example, the country was unable to use the capital assistance to put in place such infrastructures as factories. Instead, the money was used to pump a real estate bubble, which eventually burst.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Just like in the case of Latin America in 1997, the IMF prescribed controversial policies to address the economic challenges faced by Thailand. The organization advised the government to put in place stringent and politically unviable measures to address the economic challenges. Soon after this, all the other nations in the region were suffering from the same problems. The most surprising thing was that the IMF ought to have known that the remedy was not working, given the effects it had on Brazil and other nations. However, the organization went ahead and prescribed the same â€Å"solution† in Thailand. In the late 1990s, the economies of Latin America and East Asia were significantly different from one another. As a result, the attempt by the IMF to solve the challenges faced by economies in the two regions using the same strategy was a big mistake. For instance, the rate of inflation in South Korea at this time was 4%. While the problems in Brazil and other Latin American countries had to do with their imprudent governments, the imprudence in East Asia was in the private sector, and not in the public sector. As such, austerity was not the approach to use in East Asia. Other organizations, such as the World Bank, were becoming increasingly aware of the negative effects of market liberalization. To address the problem, the organizations were advocating for stringent conditions for financial aid in the region. However, the IMF refused to act with consideration. The crux of the problem is that whereas the IMF is intended to serve the developing countries, it is largely controlled by industrial economies. In practice, and through the imposition of trade policies, the IMF is crippling democracies around the world. In theory, the organization is expected to support the same democratic institutions. It is widely believed that the IMF negotiates the conditions for receiving aid with member countries. However, this is not the case given that it is not possible to have balanced negotiations when the power to decide is vested on one party. Additionally, the organization does not give member countries enough time to build consensus or even consult with their civil societies and parliaments. At times, aid is offered on a plate that seems quite open, but the real covenants are negotiated in secret. Before dispatching aid, the IMF sends its mission of economists to the member country. The mission lacks knowledge with regard to the culture of the developing countries. The mission is given a very short time to come up with the most suitable program for the country. At the end, the information they collect and present to the IMF does not represent the nation’s development strategy. Furthermore, some of the models used by the economists are either out-of-date or flawed given that they are developed without taking into consideration the economic dynamics of the developing world. The East Asia crisis spread to Indonesia, and the IMF again off ered the same solution of funds with stringent conditions, especially increasing interest rates. The argument of the IMF this time round was that Indonesia would make it through like Mexico. However, a closer look reveals that Mexico had not made it through the financial crisis with the help of the IMF. On the contrary, the country managed to get over the depression because of the increase of exports to the US. At that time, Japan was Indonesia’s main partner in trade. As a result, the situation in Indonesia was highly explosive, socially and politically, compared to that in Mexico. The IMF was just about to intensify the capital strife in the country through its restrictions that would hinder the relaxed flow of currency. At a time when the nation needed fuel and food subsidies, the government was forced to cut its spending. As a result, subsidies were eliminated. In 1998, World Bank’s vice president in East Asia averred that the region was going through a recession. In light of the record high rates of unemployment and the number of businesses that went bankrupt, the vice president could not have been more right in summing up the situation. To make matters worse, the region was unable to take advantage of opportunities provided by low exchange rates. By the end of 1998, the depression reached Russia. The similarity between what happened in Russia and East Asia was represented by the participation of the United States and IMF. In the case of Russia, the IMF was largely advised by a group of macroeconomists who did not have an idea with regard to Russian economic history. Lack of adequate consultations, which was fueled by a know-it-all attitude exhibited by the IMF and local macroeconomists, led to the economic setback that was recorded after the 1993 elections. The economic shock experienced in the country did little to move Russia towards the envisaged market economy. The Treasury and the IMF paid very little attention, if any, to institutiona l infrastructure. Instead, the agencies provided the oligarchs with the opportunity to plunder the economy. In conclusion, it is important to reiterate that the IMF was formed to assist developing nations overcome economic and capital challenges. However, the organization has ended up controlling these economies through liberalization of capital markets. In the end, developing countries are stuck with deficits that have turned into recessions and depressions. In light of these realities, the IMF should abandon liberalism and let the developing countries grow their economies at their own pace without interference. This essay on The Global Political Economy was written and submitted by user Jason Mcbride to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.